A drill is a machine used in drilling into soil or rock when it is extremely hard or needs deep drilling. There are three drilling techniques that use drilling rigs:
Percussion drilling: The equipment performs the drilling by striking and rotating a drill bit, after the holes are drilled fluids are injected for cleaning (air or water). The drill is usually powered by compressed air, although it can also be fuel-driven.
Rotary drilling: Roraty drills are generally used in small mining operations.
Their operation follows the sequence of steps below:
- Percussion: the hammer strikes transmit shock waves into the rocks;
- Rotary: through this movement the drill rotates producing multidirectional impacts on the rocks;
- Pressure: it is necessary to maintain a constant pressure so that the drill does not slide on the rock;
- Cleaning fluid: the cleaning fluid is introduced to remove the detritus from the bottom of the hole;
- Percussion: the energy of the piston is transmitted through the rod, from the hammer to the drill bit.
Rotary Drilling: A drill bit containing a wedge-shaped part, called a directional spade, is responsible for directing the drilling. Drilling proceeds with the coupling of rotary drill rods.